Basic Principles of Ayurveda :
About Dosha
Panch Mahabhuta :

Everything in this universe is composed of five elements. The human body is also made up of the five elements and the soul.

These five elements are:

Kham Akash (Space)
Vayu Vayu ( Air)
Agni Agni ( Fire )
Apa Jala ( Water )
Xite Pruthvi ( Earth )
These five elements are the basic contituents and every thing can be explained in terms of these five elements.

For example:

1. In our Body , Space is present in nostrils , mouth , ears , stomach , lungs and throat like empty organs.

2. Joints , Heart , Intestinal movements are provided by Air.

3. Fire is present in all metabolic activites.

4. All liquids like Plasma , Blood ,Lymphs ,salvia are due to water.

5. Earth is represented in any solid , heavy part of the body such as fat , Muscles , skin and nails.


About Dosha

The five elements in their biological form in the living body are of three different kinds. These are three primary life forces or three biological humors. The Ayurvedic term for these forces is Dosha. As they are three in number they are called asTridosha (Tri means three). In Sanskrit they are known as : Vata, Pitta and Kapha.

As these are specific terms or names of the three types of humors in the body it is not possible to translate them into English. They can be understood, experienced or felt only from their qualities, behavior and actions in the body. The nearest translation, meaning or comparatives of these terms, depending upon their qualities, actions and behavior.



Tridosa is a term used for the three physical humors. Tri means three and the literal meaning of the word dosa is “fault”. They are called dosa or faults because an imbalance of them causes disease in the body. As long as there is an equilibrium of the three dosas, the body remains healthy.

Vata Dosha :- The literal meaning of the word vata is ‘that which moves’.

Constitation : Vata displays the qualities of air and space mahabhuta.
Vata is the originator of all kinds of movement in the body like respiration, circulation of fluids, excretion etc.
Vata is dry, light, cold, subtle, rough and mobile.
According to Ayurveda there are five types of Vata.
1. Pravayu
2. Apanvayu
3. Udanvayu
4. Samanvayu
5. Vyanvayu

Anything which has similar qualities to vata will increase it, and things with the opposite qualities will decrease it. So vata is aggravated by the intake of dry, cold, rough types of foods, too much traveling (mobility), overwork and lack of sleep.

Pitta Dosha :- The literal meaning of pitta is ‘that which heats or cooks’.

Constitation : Pitta displays the qualitie of Agni (Fire) mahabhuta.
Pitta is responsible for all metabolic and chemical functions in the body. And also responsible for digestion, hunger, thirst, courage, eye-sight, body temperature, intellect and skin color.
Pitta is hot, sharp, sour, pungent and moving.
According to Ayurveda therea are five types of Pitta in our body.
1. Pachak Pitta
2. Ranjak Pitta
3. Sadhak Pitta
4. Alochak Pitta
5. Bharajak Pitta

Pitta is hot, sharp, sour, pungent and moving. It is aggravated by eating a lot of hot, spicy, oily, acidic, sour and pungent foods; exposure to heat and sun; smoking, or drinking tea, coffee and alcohol; and excessive anger.

Kapha Dosha :- The literal meaning of the word Kapha is ‘that which binds’.

Constitation : Kapha displays the qualities of Jal ( Water ) and Pruthvi ( Exrth ) Mahabhuta
Kapha is responsible for lubraction and cohesion in the body
According to Ayurveda there are five types of Kapha.
1. Kledak Kapha
2 Avlambak Kapha
3. Bodhak Kapha
4. Terpak Kapha
5. Shlesk Kapha

Kapha is oily , smooth , firm , dense , sticky , heavy , cold , viscous , dull and wet. Kapha is aggravated by eating sweet, sour, salty, oily, cold, fried and heavy foods. It is also aggravated by sleeping during the day and lack of physical activity.

The concept of tridosa is one of its most important Ayurvedic principles. Understanding this concept will enable you to understand many other aspects of Ayurveda.



Dhoragat Dhatav : ( Susrut sutra sthan 14 / 20 ) Rogvig Page2.

These are the basic tissues, which maintain and nourish the body.

There are seven dhatu in our body:

Shankrut Shlok:5 Astang Hridya ( Page 4)

1. Rasa : Plasma
2. Rakta : Blood
3. Mansa :Muscles
4. Meda : fat
5. Asthi : Bone
6. Majja : Bone marrow
7. Shukra : reproductive fluid

The Quantity and quality of each dhatus and it’s balanced functioning is very important for perfect health.



These are the waste materials produced as a result of various metabolic activities in the body.

The main Mala are :

o Urine
o Feces
o Sweat
It’s balanced function is responsible for good health. Accumulation of mala causes blockages in the body which result in manifestation of various deseses.

Shnkrut shlok 7.

So the human body is a uniqe combination of Dosha , Dhatu and Mala.



Theses are channels which are responsible for transportation of food ,dhatus, malas and dosha .roper functioning of srota is necessary for transporting different materials.

Blokage of srota causes many diseases.


Agni means fire. According to ayurveda there are 13 types of agni. The agni can be compared with modern medical science it is enzymes.Which responsible for digestion abd transforming one to another thing.

Balance and harmony of the factors are results to manintaine physical & mental Health.